Why is the internet important to us? The video below shows a brief introduction of the internet of things also known as IOT.
The internet of things helps us in many activities in our daily life. It is no longer just “us” being physically there, but the internet stand side by side with us. For we can see that we no longer need to physically buy music albums but could download through internet within 10 minutes to 15 minutes time. Not only the internet helps us in our daily activity but also it helps us to connect from one to another. As mentioned in one of the blog above, the old media is a monologic media where is from one source to many. There was not feedback to any source of information being mentioned, but with the internet technology it became the dialogic media. Where people could do debates and speak their opinion on the topic being mention through the net. The image below shows a debate through social media considering a political debate (which it can’t be mentioned)
Besides that the internet allows us to connect from one to another, especially the social network. With the creation of social network we could talk to one another without calling or text messaging. It also at the same time helps us to keep our data and information. Businesses no longer look into physical meeting within companies, but also use the internet technology to have conference within companies. People no longer even have the need for laptop, while smartphones have the function that most laptop has.
Just imagine 10 years ago, the only mobile phone is run by analog dial. Desktops games are all in words and mini character forms. But the mobile phones today allows to download, access to big data files, and even able to communicate with each other through internet. Games are no longer low graphic design, but runs by high end graphic cards and others. But with these internets, many of us have becoming depended over the internet, for example the news being performs in news media. People are depending on news from the social network when everyone is armed with mobile phones and internet access.
Some feels that without the internet or their smartphone their life is useless. But with all these technology, how are we physically socializing with each other? In the future would we not communicate within each other physically but through internet?
The mobile phone is the one of the biggest creation of mankind. Indeed the first mobile phone was created in 1983 by Dr. Martin Cooper. According to an article about History of Mobile Phone, the 1G phone also known as First Generation runs on FDMA (Frequency Divism Multiple Access), but it is low traffic capacity, poor voice and poor security. Follow by the 2G with a little extra accessories to the phone systems that allows us to see the caller identity and also text messaging. Continue by 2.5G that allowed user to gain internet accessed, e-mail, fax, sending and receiving file. And 3G give much higher transmission rates and offer increased capacity for users. Why would this creation be important to us? Well, it all leads to the smartphones we use today. Without these creation, there won’t be any text messaging, social network online and other application offered in the smartphones.
Let me ask you a question, what kind of phone you are using now? Is it Apple or Android?
Image Source: http://www.datarescuetools.com/images/android-phone.jpg
Let’s look into a slight brief about Apple history. According to Mitew (2012) the two founder of Apple computer is Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. In 1979, Steve Jobs created the first personal computer with a mouse-driven gal called the XEROX ALTO. But in 1985, Steve Jobs left Apple and created PIXAR, but soon in 1997 he was back in Apple and iMac was soon created in 1998, following by successful products. And finally on the year 2007 IPhone was created, until today more successful items are being sold. The philosophy of Steve Jobs is “Flash is a cross platform development tool. It is not Adobe’s goal to help developers write the best iPhone, iPod and iPad apps. It is their goal to help developers write across platform apps.”
Alright now we look at Apple competitor history, Google. The Google Inc. was created by Sergey Brin and Larry Page in 4th September 1998. The main goal is to look at the number of links to a site. The first Google website does not have HTML, for at that time they didn’t know HTML. The first Android phone was the HTC Dream in 1998. And the current Android today statistic in Oct 2012, almost 500 million Android Device is in use, 1 million activation per day, around 675, 000 apps and hold a 68% of global smartphone market. For Google their main philosophy is the flow of information is the key.
Image Source: http://blogoscoped.com/files/google-com-history/1998.jpg
For both Apple and Android they are all under the 4th generation of mobile phone. But there is a difference between both mobile that many should know before purchasing or for knowledge purpose. Following a website article Apple vs Android (n.d.) we will be looking into 6 different sections of the systems.
- Apple is a closed source and does not give user the access to software. They also have a disclaimer to use this operating system on any other mobile companies.
- Android is an open source where any mobile company can use this operating system. They also offered from the user side to add and develop application allowing them to interact with the software.
- Apple has its very unique operating system with no further categories. “It is the sole proprietor for the Apple devices and still having the prominent position in industry among various mobile operating systems”
- The Android are not similar from one to another. They are divided into different versions where the old and new version of Android can be differentiated.
- Apple has limited social network because it is not highly promote.
- Android is in the leading, where facilities all community platform to interact with others anywhere and any topic. Allowing users to become a vast type of network.
- “Android has the benefit of having Google’s platform so all the features like Google’s search engines, GTalk, Gmail, youtube, and even G maps are supported so it becomes a dynamic experience to have Android operating system. Apple has its own mailing patron and lacks other facilities like gmail etc.”
- As it is said Apple is a closed source where the security is tight and controlled.
- And Android is an open source is more prunes to viruses and security threats.
- “Apple is loaded with more than half million applications offers many utility features like gaming, office pack, filing system, skype, air printing, air play and my iPhone all are dynamic features to enhance the mobile using experience. Android also supports many utility features however its applications are less in numbers than Apple iOS.”
We cannot say which one is good and bad. There is good and bad review for both Apple and Android. It always depends on how people purchase and view. After knowing all the differences between the two company mobile phone devices, we never know which will sustain in the society and which will fall. The battle will continue and soon one will triumph over another. Which company you will bet on?
Mitew, Y 2012, ‘DIGC202 Apple VS Google’, Prezi, accessed 3/11/2012, http://prezi.com/nbpulyal3pvo/digc202-apple-vs-google/
‘History of Mobile Phone’ n.d., accessed 3/11/2012, http://ieeemacau.eee.umac.mo/ieee_student/history%20of%20mobile%20phone.htm
‘Apple VS Android’ n.d., FreeWiMAXInfo.com, accessd 3/11/2012, http://freewimaxinfo.com/apple-vs-android.html
There is the old media and new media also known as monologic media and dialogic media. According to Emerich (2011) “monologic media are those through which a single range of meaning is expressed.” These media is about a certain organization or small group of people create a message to be broadcast out to the masses. It helps to raise awareness, increases knowledge, predominant in mass media, promote attitude and behaviour change and it is only one way communication (Tufte & Mefalopulos 2009). While dialogic are “two or more actors engaging each other as equal.” This allows and encourages both sides to not only speak but also listen to each other to have a mutual sense of compassion. The dialogic help assess, probe and analyse issues and present conflicts, heavy use of interpersonal method, uses to promote participants and it is always two way. (Tufte & Mefalopulos 2009)
Image Source: http://www.prlog.org/11593579-socialmediaicons.png
We know there is an uprising conflict in the Eastern Arab country. But the reason for the uprising was cause by a small conflict, so how the whole Arab nation could know? The social media plays the biggest role in this conflict. “As a consequence of this astounding phenomenon involving both the rapid emergence of this cutting-edge technology and its adoption, social media have become an integral part of the contemporary classroom, of advertising and public relations industries, of political campaigning, and of numerous other aspects of our daily existing.” (Noor Al-Deen 2011) People have become dependent on social media to get information around the world.
We could look into the recent case happening, like the Arab Spring also known as the Arab Awakening. The Image above shows the first protest happen in Tunis. It happens on 17th December 2010 when a police took away Mohammed Bruazizi vegetable seller in the North Africa nation of Tunisia for not having a legal license. The next day he lights himself up on fire, killing him in front of the government building and that started the Arab Spring. According to an article about The Arab Spring (n.d.) the factors that is necessary for a revolution is:
- A very corrupt or weak government
- Unhappy wealthy and military classes of people
- A desire for change supported by most, if not all of the country’s different political and popular groups and then acted upon by those groups.
- The international community does not support the government being challenged.
The government at that time did everything to stop the revolution by doing web blocking, stealing password to block the internet and also erasing Facebook groups. But no matter how much they try, the out roar of protest already reaches too many people around the Eastern Arab. And finally President Ben Ali steps down less than a month after the protest started. While on the other hand in Egypt, the case of Saeed was being killed in Jun 6, 2010, he was arrested and killed by two policemen after he uploaded videos on the internet showing police officers torturing prisoners. He did it with a good deed, in showing the citizens the truth behind the police bars and his death become a symbol of police brutality and also started the 25 January revolution. (Mena 2012) According to an article by NewsRx Health and Science (n.d.) “During the week before Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak’s resignation, for example, the total rate of tweets from Egypt and around the world about political change in that country ballooned from 2, 300 a day to 230,000 a day.” This shows how people can gain information faster than other media could.
The social media has become a high purchase and consume by many around the world. The reason for people uses social media in this century is also because the technology we have. We are armed with phone cameras, and also wireless network around us. Incidents are posted up regularly and news also transfers faster than the old media. People uses social media for the interaction between people, it allows people to speak and state their mind and also listen and understand the others opinion in situation and things. “Social networks have broken the psychological barrier of fear by helping many to connect and share information. It has given most people in the Arab world the knowledge that they are not alone, that there are others experiencing just as much brutality, just as much hardships, just as much lack of justice.” (Kassim 2012)
But again there is always a good and a bad to everything. With all the uprising of the Arab nation, many say is the effect of social media in transferring the news from one to another. By looking into matters in this current day, even though the Presidents steps down after the protest did the country changed? We are still seeing wars around them, fighting within the government and people. We can look into the recent war between Palestine and Israel; they are using social media sending threat to one another. How can social media be the helped of citizens? Indeed social media gives the people a state of mind being able to voice out, but is there improvement after protesting? Or are they just more chance for them to act while and kill.
Protesting is for freedom and peace, giving people a voice to speak. But with social media giving out news and information not all act peacefully. People miss us the concept and turn it to violence. Like the video above shows the Libya protest, when the social media Youtube and Facebook shows the video of a US made film insulting their prophet. Up to you to think, do social media play a good role in protesting for peace and harmony, freedom of speech? Or does it give people chance to act violently towards people they hate?
‘The Arab Spring’ n.d., United Nations Security Council, accessed 28/10/2012, http://msmunatunagb.wikispaces.com/file/view/Arab+Spring+Topic+Guide.pdf
‘University of Washington: New study quantities use of social media in Arab Spring’ 2011, NeosRx Health & Science, accessed 28/10/2012, http://ey9ff7jb6l.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=New+study+quantifies+use+of+social+media+in+Arab+Spring&rft.jtitle=NewsRx+Health+%26+Science&rft.date=2011-10-02&rft.issn=1944-2599&rft.spage=658&rft.externalDocID=NewsRx_Health_Science_2011_10_02_658_University_of_Washington_New_study_quantifies_use_of_social_media_in_Arab_Spring
Emerich, M 2011, Media, Spiritualistic and Social Change, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York, accessed 28/10/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=bUuNCx9D0VIC&pg=PA64&dq=monologic+media+and+dialogic+media&hl=en&sa=X&ei=AbmkUPWDDqa4iQfkqYDYBw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=monologic%20media%20and%20dialogic%20media&f=false
Kassim, S 2012, ‘Twitter Revolution: How the Arab Spring Was Helped By Social Media’, policymic, accessed 28/10/2012, http://www.policymic.com/articles/10642/twitter-revolution-how-the-arab-spring-was-helped-by-social-media
Mena 2012, ‘Court to rule on appeal of Khaled Saeed torturers in December’, Egypt Independence, accessed 28/10/2012, http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/court-rule-appeal-khaled-saeed-torturers-december
Noor Al-Deen, HS 2011, Social Media: Usage and Impact, Lexington Books, United Kingdom, accessed 28/10/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=MDQDaw9F2AwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Tufte, T & Mefalopulos, P 2009, Participating Communication: A Practical Guide, World Bank Publications, United State of America, accessed 28/10/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=Aoo109Ure0AC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Promises are meant to be kept and done, while secrets are meant to be kept. The internet not only has helped us in improving our knowledge, economy and other things in the society. But it also allows people to hack into systems that are private and confidential.
Image Source: http://www.yourwebsecurity.com/img/hacker.jpg
The word hacking has already gives people the bad impression in the past, but in the this modern world some hacking are consider good and are even encourage by certain society. Base on personal witness, a certain university IT course final project is to hack the university security and Wi-Fi systems and upgrade it to a better system. Why is this act being encouraged?
The first hacking appearance is in 1960s, it is view as a short-cut or a way to bypass a standard operation of an object or systems. According to Clarke, Clawson and Cordell (2003) the term came by a model train enthusiasts at MIT who hack the train systems in order to modify it. In the 1970s there is a new area of hackers also known as phreakers, “these hackers discovered and exploited operational characteristics of the newly all-electronic telephone switching network that enable them to make long distance calls free of charge.” (Clarke, Clawson & Cordell 2003) It is an important movement in the early example of anti-establishment subculture that spawns influential hacker.
There are many types of hacking and some are good and some are bad. According to Siciliano (2011) there are 7 types of hacker:
- 1. White Hat Hacker
- These hackers are considered good hacker as they help ensure that a company’s information systems are secure. These professionals rely on a constant battle with other technology battle.
- 2. Black Hat Hacker
- These are the plan hackers that break into network or computer to obtain information. They are the one that always manage to find the path of least resistance, isn’t due to human error or laziness, or with a new type of attack.
- 3. Script Kiddies
- These hackers are somehow similar to Black Hat Hackers, but they used borrowed programs to attack networks and try to make them known to the network system.
- 4. Hacktivists
- Some hackers are motivated by politics or the government wrong doings. Or just simply harass their target for fun purpose.
- 5. State Sponsored Hackers
- Government knows that with the internet, information is no longer safe. So they hire these types of hackers to serve the military purpose. Now is all about controlling the cyberspace.
- 6. Spy Hackers
- “Corporations hire hackers to infiltrate the competition and steal trade secret.” They uses the same tools as Hacktivists, but the their main goal is to serve their client goal and getting paid.
- 7. Cyber Terrorist
- They are the most dangerous, with wide range of skills and goals. Their motive is spread fear and terror or commit murder to people.
After knowing the history and types of hacking we will look into a website that supports the information, the WikiLeaks. “The WikiLeaks is a whistle-blowing website which was founded in December 2006 by its Editor in Chief, Julian Assange. Since its inception WikiLeaks has establish a reputation for publishing sensitive material from government and other high-profile organizations.” (This House Believes the World is Beter Off with WikiLeaks n.d.) According to the article, WikiLeaks is a non-profit media organization dedicates to bring important information to the public.
People around the world accept WikiLeaks, and the website also portrays as a good website that informed people the truth and facts around the world. After the creation of WikiLeaks there is no doubt that governments are securing their confidential data now making their security tighter than ever. “Politicians can roar their demands for the prosecution of Julan Assange or absurdly that WikiLeaks ve designated as terrorist organizations, but the rahe is in truth a tacit admission that government’s monopoly on its own information is now a thing of the past.” (Ross 2010) According to a website of WikiLeaks mentioned that the website has been sustained and also triumphed over legal and political attacks that are done to silence the organizations. Their principles is to “work is based are the defence of freedom of speech and media publishing, the improvement of our common historical record and the support of the rights of all people to create new history.” (WikiLeaks n.d.)
Indeed many people look at WikiLeaks as a ‘hero’ in the cyber world, for it gives people information they need to know about their country. Yes the document and news that are publishing in WikiLeaks are real; they are done with research and sources that are true. But is there a need to know everything? No matter what government in what country, there bound to be certain things that are meant to be kept secret. There is a purpose why secret are kept from the citizens. But think about it again, people in the 21st century uses internet to do their banking, to access accounts and other company policies and contract, with people around the world able to even hack the high tech advance technology of the United State government, you think our bank account all these are safe?
‘About’ n.d., WikiLeaks, accessed, 27/10/2012, http://wikileaks.org/About.html
‘This House Believes the World is Better Off With WikiLeaks’ n.d., TheDohaDebates, accessed 27/10/2012, http://www.thedohadebates.com/debates/briefings/S07E04.pdf
Clarke, Z, Clawson, J & Cordell, M 2003, ‘A Brief History of Hacking’, Historical Approaches to Digital Media, accessed 27/10/2012, http://steel.lcc.gatech.edu/~mcordell/lcc6316/Hacker%20Group%20Project%20FINAL.pdf
Ross, C 2010, ‘How WikiLeaks Changes Things for Us All’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27/10/2012, http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/12/how_wikileaks_changes_things.html
Siciliano, R 2011, ‘7 Types of Hacking Motivations’, McAfee, accessed 27/10/2012, http://blogs.mcafee.com/identity-theft/7-types-of-hacker-motivations
As mentioned in previous chapter in the blog, in the 21st century the old and new media are being converge together. People are slowly changing the way of living towards the new digital age, and the old media is becoming scare.
Let’s look into the content of news in the old media and new media. The old media are somehow bound by rules and regulations of the government. According to Pepper (2000) the old media is based upon distinct industry and regulatory structure, also based on non-competitive model for example “(1) assume scarcity, (2) assumed natural monopolies or regulated oligopolies, (3) government protected incumbents-ensuring scarcity, (4) benefit to entry, and (5) government decided winners and losers.” This shows that the media are usually controlled, and the news given out to readers is all base on one sided story.
This is where the internet comes in. People in the modern age no longer only look into the perspective of the government, and also request in knowing the full story. The new media like the social media and blog are giving the chances to people to write the part of the story. For example citizen journalism “post news and photo in their blogs, online profiles, and Wikipedia as events happen, something beating media outlets to the stories.” (Edwards 2009) The internet brings people together, and old barriers are breaking down.
Indeed that the new media may change and improved the form of news that is richer, but there is no guarantee that there will any improvement in news content. “Just as telecommunications technology and ubiquitous helicopters have produced extraordinarily proper news coverage and judgement in Los Angeles emerging new media tools may heighten problems of poor news judgement online.” (Parlie 1999) The new media is transforming news itself to a different level. But which shall we believe? The old media consist of information that the government controls, but the new media mostly were customizes by people and it has become increasingly common. So what is true and false to the news we see in both old media and new media?
“Social media and the internet have transformative powers, allowing faculty to form powerful connections and reach new audiences that previously couldn’t be accessed from the ivory tower.” (Alampi 2012) According to an article ‘News Coverage: Traditional Media vs Social Media’ (n.d.) politics and government issues are usually cover most by both blogs and traditional media, follow by foreign events, science, technology, health and medicine, celebrity, economy, terrorism and others.
The new media is definitely over taking the old media, but the facts that which media is fully telling the truth to the citizens? With normal people being journalist within the new media, where would the old media journalist go? Should the government take control over the new media too?
‘News Coverage: Traditional Media vs Social Media’ n.d., Online Marketing Trends, accessed 6/10/2012, http://www.onlinemarketing-trends.com/2011/03/news-coverage-traditional-media-vs.html
Alampi, A 2012, ‘Social media is more than simply a marketing tool for academic research’, highereducationnetwork, accessed 6/10/2012, http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/blog/2012/jul/24/social-media-academic-research-tool
Edwards, DJ 2009, ‘Social Media’s Importance’, Behavioural Healthcare, vol.29, no.2, pp4, accessed 6/10/2012, http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE%7CA196018669&v=2.1&u=uow&it=r&p=HRCA&sw=w&authCount=1
Pavlik, JV 1999, ‘New Media and News: Implications for the Future of Journalism’, New Media & Society, vol.1, no.1, pp54-59, accessed 6/10/2012, http://nms.sagepub.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/content/1/1/54
Pepper, R 2000, ‘Old Rules and New Realities: Old Media, New Media and Convergence’, The Academy of Entertainment and Technology, accessed 6/10/2012, http://www.learcenter.org/pdf/Pepper.pdf
Have you ever wondered where all the information is store in the cyber world? Well, basically it is store somewhere in a software name cloud computing. Again we are going to wonder, what is cloud computing?
Image Source: http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~aishah/ccc.jpg
Just imagine the air around us; the air is shared by every living being who breaths air. The cloud computing is a similar aspect as the air. An unlimited space shared by everyone who consumes and used it. According to Mell and Grance (2011) they define cloud computing as “a model of enabling ubiquitous convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.” No longer people are in need of hard disk or pen drive to store information, the cloud computing has already provide the unlimited space to store.
Let’s look into a slight history of cloud computing. In the nineties, cloud computing was created along with the creation of the World Wide Web and side by side with the mosaic browser the internet based computing took off. (Molen 2010) Base on Crawford and Johnstone (n.d.) the cloud computing concept was originated from telecommunication companies that are changing to VPN. Cloud computing was created for the convenient of getting information without having a hard copy.
In the past, when the internet wasn’t widely used yet, in order to obtain an information we need to go back to the same location as the storage date device, but with cloud computing it takes away that step. The cloud computing allows us to gain information anywhere at any time. The time for hard copy documents are no longer needed in the business world. The cloud computing have created an easy way out from most business men as it cancel the need of being in the same physical locations as the hardware that stores the date. “Your cloud provider can both own and house the hardware and software necessary to run your home or business applications.” (Huth & Cebula 2011)
The image above provides us an inside knowledge of the type of cloud computing in the society. Frist we look into public cloud computing, “Public or external cloud is traditional cloud computing where resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet or via and or form on off-side third party provider who bills on a fine-grained basis.” (What Is Cloud Computing? n.d.) As it said it is public, where customers can access it easily. But all the software is monitor by a third party. According to Furth and Escalante (2010) usually the public clouds are usually run by the third part with different customers applications are likely to be mixed together on the cloud’s server.
Secondly we look into private cloud, it basically consist of private network and systems to a particular company. It is built for specifically for one client, providing full control over the data, security and also quality service. By providing the benefit of utility computing-shared hardware costs, this includes the ability to recover lost data and also scale up and down depending on the customer’s demands. “Private clouds can be built and managed by a company’s own IT organization or by a cloud provider.” (Furth & Escalante 2010)
And lastly we look into the hybrid cloud also known as the ‘combine cloud’. “Hybrid clouds means either two separate clouds joined together or a combination of virtualized cloud server instances use together with real physical hardware.” (What Is Cloud Computing? n.d.) It basically means by combining both public and private cloud together and introduce the complexity of determining how to distribute applications within both. Sharing information through cloud computing is also not a high recommended idea, people could gain private information easily.
Everything in the world is balanced, there is the good and the bad to everything and cloud computing is not excluded. After knowing each categories of the cloud computing, here we look into the pros and cons. According to Mirzaei (2008) the pros of cloud computing are (1) reduces cost, saving the organization money in a short run allowing more money for other important resources. (2) Increased storage, allowing organizations to store more date on private cloud systems. (3) Cloud computing is highly automated, there is no need for IT personal to keep up to date as the service in cloud computing will provide the updates. (4) More mobility, employees can access to the information wherever they are, no longer have the needs to remain at the desks. (5) It also gives IT chances to focus in other things.
For the cons of cloud computing is basically more focus of the safety of information. According to Mirzaei (2008) (1) security, would there is a security standard? Where customers know where their information data are store in? (2) Reliance on the 3rd party, customers have no control over the information stored, and it is “difficult-to-trust” provider. (3) Cost of transition, will the price to subscribes the cloud computing be constant? (4) Uncertainty to benefits, will there be a long term benefit or just a short term?
Indeed cloud computing is a good systems that can help most organizations and business. But certain risk are to consider in sustain the information of a company.
Mell, P & Grance, T 2011, ‘The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing’, Recommendations of the National Institute of Standard and Technology, accessed 27/9/2012, http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf
Crawford, A & Johnstone, B n.d., ‘Cloud Computing’, accessed 27/9/2012, http://meseec.ce.rit.edu/756-projects/spring2012/2-6.pdf
Molen, FVD 2010, Get Ready for Cloud Computing: A Comprehensive Guide to Virtualization and Cloud Computing, Van Haren Publishing, UK, accessed 27/9/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=GmYI2adIU_gC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Huth, A & Cebula, J 2011, The Basics of Cloud Computing, Camegie Melton University, accessed 27/9/21012, http://www.us-cert.gov/reading_room/USCERT-CloudComputingHuthCebula.pdf
Furth, B & Escalante, A 2010, Handbook of Cloud Computing, Springer, Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London, accessed 27/9/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=jLNGCPs6rr4C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
‘What IS Cloud Computing?’ n.d., LUIT INFOTECH SAAS BUSINESS SOFTWARE, accessed 27/9/2012, http://www.luitinfotech.com/kc/what-is-cloud-computing.pdf
Mirzaei, N 2008, ‘Cloud Computing’, accessed 27/9/2012, http://grids.ucs.indiana.edu/ptliupages/publications/ReportNarimanMirzaeiJan09.pdf
Do you know how to bake a cake? It is easy, just get the ingredient, pour into the bowl mix it well and put into the oven and bake it. 30 minutes to 45 minutes later it will be done, as easy as eating pie.
Here is the million dollar question, why is baking cake same as convergence between old and new media?
According to Jenkins (2006), his definition of convergence is “the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audience.” Technological, industrial, cultural and social changes depending on who is speaking and what are it about all this mix together is ‘Convergence’. (Jenkins 2006) So is it like baking a cake, by mixing so many elements together convergence was created. We could take a look into the smart phones we see today.
In the past, each technology has their purpose and strength. The PlayStation was created for games and high definition that can suit television megapixels. The PPS was created for easy and portable gaming device for children and others technology devices too. But now we look into the smart phones, we no longer need a laptop or computer to check e-mails, we could listen to songs without MP3 players, we could play 3D games without buying CDs and also we can log into social network anywhere with internet access. All these in one device that works perfectly fine like a PC, gaming machine and phone. Who would bother to buy an expensive technology device that cost almost the same price as smart phones? Most would not bother; there is a saying ‘better to have all in one rather than one by one’.
Remember the Gameboy or Nintendo DS?
These two technologies were created to be a portable gaming device. I remember that it was once hold by many young children in shopping mall. But now we see the generations holding Ipad, Iphone or other Android phone playing games. But what can we say? Technology is improving and each time something new is created is better than the old ones.
Now roughly we understand convergence, so how does it affect the industry and audience? According to Gannon (2009), he mentioned that now recently scientist or researchers are taking an interest in media convergence. He said that “convergence research is more far-reaching than such establish research collaborations when it links different business that had made a virtue of focusing on their core skills.” So how do we define industrial convergence? It has the same concepts as the baking cake theory. “Industry convergence involves the ‘meeting’ of at least two industries, that can be define as both demand and supply criteria.” (Christensen & Maskell 2003) Take communication industry as example, in the 20th century hand phones was created just for calling and short messaging service (SMS), not much people could effort a hand phone even it cost RM300. But look at the 21st century smart phones, one of it can cost up to RM3000 plus and not only have the ability to call or ‘SMS’ it allows us to access out social network, e-mails and others. With this companies with different technology have to come together creating a contract partnership deal to create better technology, Adroid market works together with Samsung, HTC, Sony, CSL and other phones. With all this creates the ‘Industry Convergence’.
Image Source: http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/bve0172l.jpg
Now we look into how does it affects the audience? What have the media convergence done to the audience point of view? “Convergence media have been hailed as creating a ‘cultural shift’, which has realigned the role of audience and producers in profoundly new ways.” (Bird 2011) In conclusion or short term is ‘Prosumers’. We have heard of producers who create products, and consumers that purchase products, than what is Prosumers? “Prosumers is a term coined by combining the words “professional”, or “productive” and “consumers”. These are the people who will have diagnosed themselves with the help of the internet before walking into the doctor’s office.” (Laucius 2004) The internet is part of media convergence in the 21st century, we could see movie, download songs, listen to radio station, research and others all through internet. With this consumers who involved themselves around internet can write or create anything they like.
As we can see in the image above, Youtube is a good example for how prosumers are made. People are able to sign up for free, and post of video without any trouble or being censored. With that rather being consumers that watch video made by official producers, fan made video or parody videos are all made by prosumers. Another example blogs, people began to write their opinion about a certain restaurant or movie, this is also prosumers. A very good example is the BERSIH 3.0, the media coverage is monitor by the government and certain content cannot be post out the public, but with internet citizen no longer just consume the information given by the media but also produce their own opinion in social network website like Facebook, Twitter and Blogs. They produce their own opinion and certain truth that the media fail to cover for other internet audience to see.
See how the media convergence changes the society? First the impact on companies and industries, combining power to create something better. Than audience are no longer just audience that consumes what the media is giving, but starting to produce their own ideas in the internet to the society. How much more will the society change due to the convergence of media and technology? Will culture disappear? Will the government be able to overpower prosumers? How will the old media react to the changes, will they be gone?
Bird, SE 2011, ‘Are we all producers now?’, Cultural Studies, vol.25, no.4-5, pp502-516, accessed 20/9/2012, http://bit.ly/UZTsfj
Christensen, JP & Maskell, P 2003, The Industrial Dynamics of The New Digital Economy, Edwards Elgar Publishing, USA, accessed 20/9/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=BYij5uvlXNYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Gannon, F 2009, ‘Convergence’, EMBO Report, vol.10, no.2, pp103, accessed 20/9/2012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637325/pdf/embor20091.pdf
Jenkins, H 2006, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, NYU Press, United State, accessed 20/9/2012, http://books.google.com.my/books?id=RlRVNikT06YC&printsec=frontcover&dq=convergence&source=bl&ots=9A6Ajx-DUr&sig=vXEH6e33Zl5NjjcUCE0is2LkzNg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QLB6UP-xO8nWrQeq3YHQAg&redir_esc=y
Laucius, J 2004, ‘Prosumers: Final Edition’, The Ottawa Citizen, accessed 20/9/2012, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/docview/240823978